The chili pepper (also chile, chile pepper, chilie pepper, or chilli from Nahuatl chīlli (Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈt͡ʃiːli] (listen)) is the fruit of plants belonging to the members of the family Solanaceae. About thirty species exist as shrubs with brightly colored, mostly spicy, fruits. Chili peppers are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their pungency when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related capsaicinoids. Cultivars grown in North America and Europe are believed to all derive from Capsicum annuum, and have white, yellow, red or purple to black fruits. In 2016, world production of raw green chili peppers was 34. 5 million tonnes, with China producing half of the world total.