Kane was born on 9 August 1990 in Claremont, a suburb of Perth. Her father is Scottish (from Glasgow) and her mother has Scottish, Irish, and French ancestry. She grew up in Perth, and attended St Hilda's Anglican School for Girls. She has a brother named William, who is three years younger. Her parents divorced when she was seven, and Adelaide and her brother were raised by their single mother. When she joined the cast of Neighbours, her mother and she moved to Melbourne, Victoria, while her brother and stepfather remained in Perth. She also lived for a short period in New Zealand, while shooting children's television series Power Rangers RPM.