Man inherited the mechanism of emotion from his animal ancestors. Therefore, some of the person's emotions coincide with the emotions of animals: rage, hunger, thirst, fear. But these are the simplest emotions associated with satisfying organic needs. With the development of reason and higher human needs, on the basis of the apparatus of emotions, more complex human feelings were formed.
Thus, we distinguish emotion from feeling. Emotion in the course of evolution arose earlier than feeling, it is inherent not only to man, but also to the animal, and expresses the attitude toward the satisfaction of physiological needs. Feelings developed on the basis of emotions when interacting with reason, during the formation of social relations and are inherent only in man.
As for the term "emotional states," it is equally attributed to feelings and emotions. The border between emotion and feeling is not always easy. In terms of the physiology of higher nervous activity, their difference is determined by the degree of involvement of cortical and especially second-signal processes.
Feeling is one of the forms of reflection of reality, expressing the subjective attitude of a person to the satisfaction of his needs, to the conformity or inconsistency of something to his ideas.
A significant part of human needs is formed by upbringing, is instilled in society (for example, hygienic and cultural needs). Many feelings are so fused with mental activity that they do not exist outside of this activity.
If a person does not realize the danger, a sense of fear does not come. But much later, when the past danger is realized, a person can be overcome with fear, and he literally grows cold at the thought of what kind of threat he was exposed to.
Sometimes an offensive hint does not immediately come, and then with a delay there comes a feeling of anger. It happens that a distant memory resurrects the former feelings: the person smiles happily, remembering the pleasant event that happened in the past.
In the novel LN. Tolstoy's "Hadji Murad" protagonist, telling the story of his life, did not hide how once in his youth during the flare-up hot fight was frightened and fled. His interlocutor Loris-Melikov, knowing the tried courage of Hadji Murad, was surprised. Then Hadji Murad explained that he had always remembered this shame since then and when he remembered, he was not afraid of anything.
Shame turned out to be stronger than fear due to the memory property to resurrect the old feelings. This helped to suppress fear, and later, apparently, led to a partial "atrophy of fear."
In general, the sense of shame belongs to a huge role in the formation of moral and ethical qualities of the individual. JB Shaw expressed this aphoristically: "There is no courage - there is shame."
Below, we list the most famous feelings. We will say that no enumeration can exhaust the variety of emotional states. Here it is appropriate to compare with the colors of the solar spectrum: the basic tones are seven, but how many more intermediate colors and how many shades can be obtained by mixing them!
In addition, depending on the chosen criteria, feelings are grouped differently. For example, they are divided into positive and negative on the basis of the delivered pleasure or displeasure. One can distinguish feelings directed at other people, and feelings directed at oneself. The first include love, gratitude, envy, contempt. The second is complacency, shame, remorse. There are feelings connected with the evaluation of the events of the surrounding world - grief, disappointment, joy. A whole group of feelings is associated with the instinct of self-preservation - fear, anxiety, fear. There are "intermediate" feelings that can be attributed to several groups: for example, anger and annoyance can be directed at others and on oneself. Such "transition units" are inherent in any classification.